(Last updated:17/10/2017; last reviewed:17/10/2015)
|Rating of Recommendations: A = Strong; B = Moderate; C = Optional
Rating of Evidence: I = Data from randomized controlled trials; II = Data from well-designed nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies with long-term clinical outcomes; III = Expert opinion
a Early infection represents either acute or recent infection.
Definitions: Acute HIV-1 infection, the phase of HIV-1 disease immediately after infection, is typically characterized by an initial burst of viremia; although anti-HIV-1 antibodies are undetectable, HIV-1 RNA or p24 antigen is present. Recent infection is generally considered the phase up to 6 months after infection during which detectable anti-HIV-1 antibodies develop. Throughout this section, the term “early HIV-1 infection” is used to refer to either acute or recent HIV-1 infection.
Although some patients with acute HIV-1 infection experience fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, skin rash, myalgia, arthralgia, and other symptoms,1-6 a recent prospective study shows that most patients have nonspecific and relatively mild signs and symptoms.7 Primary care clinicians may fail to recognize acute HIV-1 infection because its manifestations are often similar to those of many other viral infections, such as influenza and infectious mononucleosis. Acute infection can also be asymptomatic. Table 11 provides practitioners with guidance to recognize, diagnose, and manage acute HIV-1 infection.
Diagnosing Acute HIV Infection
Health care providers should maintain a high level of suspicion of acute HIV infection in patients who have a compatible clinical syndrome—especially in those who report recent high-risk behavior (Table 11).8 Patients may not always disclose or admit to high-risk behaviors or they may not perceive that their behaviors put them at risk for HIV acquisition. Thus, even in the absence of reported high-risk behaviors, practitioners should have a low threshold for considering a diagnosis of acute HIV-1 infection, especially in high prevalence (≥1%) areas. Current statistics on the HIV prevalence in different geographical areas in the United States can be found at these websites: AIDSVu (http://aidsvu.org/) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s AtlasPlus (https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/atlas/).
Acute HIV-1 infection is usually defined as detectable HIV-1 RNA or p24 antigen in serum or plasma in the setting of a negative or indeterminate HIV-1 antibody test result.8.9 Combination immunoassays that detect HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 p24 antigen are now approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the most recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention testing algorithm recommends them as the preferred assay to use for HIV screening, including for possible acute HIV-1 infection. Specimens that are reactive on this initial assay should be tested with an immunoassay that differentiates HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies.10 Specimens that are reactive on the initial assay and have either negative or indeterminate antibody differentiation test results should undergo testing using an FDA-approved quantitative or qualitative HIV-1 RNA test; a negative HIV-1 RNA test result indicates that the original Ag/Ab test result was a false positive. Detection of HIV-1 RNA indicates that acute HIV-1 infection is highly likely,9 and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be warranted (see Treatment for Early HIV-1 Infection). HIV-1 infection should be confirmed by subsequent testing to document HIV antibody seroconversion.
Some health care facilities may still be following HIV testing algorithms that recommend initial testing with an assay that only tests for anti-HIV antibodies. In such settings, when acute HIV-1 infection is suspected in a patient with a negative or indeterminate HIV antibody test result, a quantitative or qualitative HIV-1 RNA test should be performed. A negative or indeterminate HIV antibody test result and a positive HIV-1 RNA test result indicate that acute HIV-1 infection is highly likely. Providers should be aware that a low-positive quantitative HIV-1 RNA level (e.g., <10,000 copies/mL) may represent a false-positive result because HIV-1 RNA levels in acute infection are generally (but not always) very high (e.g., >100,000 copies/mL).5-7 Therefore, when a low-positive quantitative HIV-1 RNA test result is obtained, the HIV-1 RNA test should be repeated using a different specimen from the same patient because repeated false-positive HIV-1 RNA tests are unlikely.6 The diagnosis of HIV-1 infection should be confirmed by subsequent documentation of HIV antibody seroconversion (see Table 11).
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When acute HIV-1 infection is suspected and an anti-HIV antibody and/or antibody/antigen combo test is negative or the western blot is indeterminate, other suitable test options include a nucleic acid test for HIV. However, proviral DNA tests are not widely available in Australia and HIV viral load assays are not registered for use as a diagnostic test in this setting. False negative proviral DNA and false positive or negative HIV RNA tests can occur. Repeating anti-HIV antibody testing is likely to resolve the diagnosis in a shorter time period than ordering additional types of tests unless the turnaround time for nucleic acid tests is rapid.
Clinical trial data regarding the treatment of early HIV-1 infection are limited. However, a number of studies suggest that individuals who are treated during early infection may experience potential immunologic and virologic benefits.11-19 In addition, because early HIV-1 infection is often associated with high viral loads and increased infectiousness,20 and ART use by individuals with HIV reduces transmission to uninfected sexual partners,21 treatment during early HIV-1 infection is expected to substantially reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmission.
The START and TEMPRANO trials evaluated timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (see Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy). Although neither trial collected specific information on patients with early infection, the strength of the two studies’ overall results and the evidence from other studies described above strongly suggest that, whenever possible, patients should begin ART upon diagnosis of early infection.
Considerations When Treating Early HIV-1 Infection
As with chronic infection, patients with early HIV-1 infection must be willing and able to commit to treatment. On a case-by-case basis, providers may recommend that patients defer therapy for clinical or psychosocial reasons. If treatment during early infection is deferred, patients should be maintained in care and every effort should be made to initiate therapy as soon as they are ready. Patients should also be reminded regularly of the importance of using condoms consistently and correctly during sex. The consistent use of condoms will reduce a patient’s risk of transmitting HIV infection and help them to avoid exposure to sexually transmitted infections (http://www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/).
Treating for Early HIV Infection During Pregnancy
Because early HIV-1 infection, especially in the setting of high level viremia, is associated with a high risk of perinatal transmission, all pregnant women with HIV-1 infection should start combination ART as soon as possible to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV-1.22
Treatment Regimen for Early HIV Infection
Prior to the widespread use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), data from the United States and Europe demonstrated that transmitted virus may be resistant to at least one antiretroviral drug in up to 16% of patients.23,24 In one study, 21% of isolates from patients with acute HIV-1 infection demonstrated resistance to at least one drug.25 Therefore, before initiating ART in a person with early HIV-1 infection, a specimen for genotypic antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance testing should be obtained and the results of the test used to help guide selection of an ARV regimen (AII). However, treatment initiation itself should not be delayed pending resistance testing results. Once the resistance test results are available, the treatment regimen can be modified if warranted (AII).
As in chronic infection, the goal of therapy during early HIV-1 infection is to suppress plasma HIV-1 RNA to undetectable levels (AIII). ART should be initiated with one of the combination regimens recommended for patients with chronic infection (AIII) (see What to Start). If available, the results of ARV drug resistance testing or the ARV resistance pattern of the source person’s virus should be used to guide selection of the ARV regimen. Since therapy for early HIV infection is often started before the results of drug resistance testing are available, a pharmacologically boosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen may be an appropriate choice (e.g., boosted darunavir [DRV]) because resistance to PIs emerges slowly and clinically significant transmitted resistance to PIs is uncommon (AIII). For similar reasons, dolutegravir (DTG) plus emtricitabine (FTC) and either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) are also reasonable treatment options, although data regarding transmission of INSTI-resistant HIV and the efficacy of DTG plus TDF/ FTC in patients with acute/early infection are more limited (AIII). DTG/abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) is not recommended for empiric treatment of acute infection unless the patient is known to be HLA-B* 5701 negative, information that is seldom available when patients with acute infection present for care.
Given the increasing use of TDF/FTC as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-negative individuals,26-28 early infection may be diagnosed in some patients while they are taking TDF/FTC for PrEP. In this setting, resistance testing should be performed; however, as described above, use of a pharmacologically boosted PI (e.g., boosted DRV) and FTC plus either TDF or TAF—or DTG and FTC plus either TDF or TAF remain reasonable treatment options pending resistance testing results (see What to Start).
Testing for plasma HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, and toxicity monitoring should be performed as described in Laboratory Testing for Initial Assessment and Monitoring (i.e., HIV-1 RNA at initiation of therapy, after 2 to 8 weeks, then every 4 to 8 weeks until viral suppression, and thereafter, every 3 to 4 months) (AII).
Once ART is initiated in patients with early HIV infection, therapy should be continued indefinitely as in guidelines for patients with chronic infection. A large randomized controlled trial of patients with chronic HIV-1 infection found that treatment interruption was harmful in terms of increased risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events,29 and that the strategy was associated with increased markers of inflammation, immune activation, and coagulation.30 For these reasons and the potential benefit of ART in reducing the risk of HIV-1 transmission, the Panel recommends indefinite continuation of ART in patients treated for early HIV-1 infection (AIII).
Table 11. Identifying, Diagnosing, and Managing Acute and Recent HIV-1 Infection
Suspicion of Acute HIV infection:
Evaluation/Diagnosis of Acute HIV-1 Infection:
Antiretroviral Therapy After Diagnosis of Early HIV-1 Infection:
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- Hecht FM, Busch MP, Rawal B, et al. Use of laboratory tests and clinical symptoms for identification of primary HIV infection. AIDS. 2002;16(8):1119-1129. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12004270.
- Robb ML, Eller LA, Kibuuka H, et al. Prospective Study of Acute HIV-1 Infection in Adults in East Africa and Thailand. N Engl J Med. Jun 02 2016;374(22):2120-2130. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27192360.
- Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(RR-14):1-17; quiz CE11-14. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16988643.
- Pilcher CD, Christopoulos KA, Golden M. Public health rationale for rapid nucleic acid or p24 antigen tests for HIV. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(1):S7-15. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20225950.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Public Health Laboratories. Laboratory Testing for the Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Updated Recommendations. Available at http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/23447. Published June 27, 2014. Accessed March 19, 2015.
- Hogan CM, Degruttola V, Sun X, et al. The setpoint study (ACTG A5217): effect of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy on virologic set point in recently HIV-1-infected individuals. J Infect Dis. Jan 1 2012;205(1):87-96. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22180621.
- Grijsen ML, Steingrover R, Wit FW, et al. No treatment versus 24 or 60 weeks of antiretroviral treatment during primary HIV infection: the randomized Primo-SHM trial. PLoS Med. 2012;9(3):e1001196. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/22479156.
- Hamlyn E, Ewings FM, Porter K, et al. Plasma HIV viral rebound following protocol-indicated cessation of ART commenced in primary and chronic HIV infection. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43754. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/22952756.
- Strain MC, Little SJ, Daar ES, et al. Effect of treatment, during primary infection, on establishment and clearance of cellular reservoirs of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. May 1 2005;191(9):1410-1418. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/15809898.
- SPARTAC Trial Investigators, Fidler S, Porter K, et al. Short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. N Engl J Med. Jan 17 2013;368(3):207-217. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23323897.
- Rosenberg ES, Altfeld M, Poon SH, et al. Immune control of HIV-1 after early treatment of acute infection. Nature. Sep 28 2000;407(6803):523-526. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11029005.
- Schuetz A, Deleage C, Sereti I, et al. Initiation of ART during early acute HIV infection preserves mucosal Th17 function and reverses HIV-related immune activation. PLoS Pathog. Dec 2014;10(12):e1004543. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed/25503054.
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- Guadalupe M, Reay E, Sankaran S, et al. Severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in gut lymphoid tissue during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and substantial delay in restoration following highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Virol. Nov 2003;77(21):11708-11717. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14557656. Downloaded from https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines on 7/5/2018 Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Adults and Adolescents Living with HIV I-6
- Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Sewankambo NK, et al. Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis. May 1 2005;191(9):1403-1409. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15809897.
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- Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. 2016. Available at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/PerinatalGL.pdf.
- Kim D, Ziebell R, Saduvala N, et al. Trend in transmitted HIV-1 ARV drug resistance-associated mutations: 10 HIV surveillance areas, U.S., 2007–2010. Presented at: 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 2013. Atlanta, GA.
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- Yanik EL, Napravnik S, Hurt CB, et al. Prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance differs between acutely and chronically HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;61(2):258-262. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22692092.
- Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(27):2587-2599. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21091279.
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- Thigpen MC, Kebaabetswe PM, Paxton LA, et al. Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(5):423-434. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22784038.
- Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study G, El-Sadr WM, Lundgren J, et al. CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(22):2283-2296. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135583.
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